Islamic Republic of Afghanistan


Afghanistan, (which literally means Land of the Afghan) is a mountainous land-locked country
located in Central Asia. It has a history and culture that goes back over 5000 years. Throughout its
long, splendid, and sometimes chaotic history, this area of the world has been known by various
names. In ancient times, its inhabitants called the land Aryana. In the medieval era, it was called
Khorasan, and in modern times, its people have decided to call it Afghanistan. The exact
population of Afghanistan is unknown, however, it is estimated to be somewhere close to 32
Afghanistan is a heterogeneous nation, in which there are four major ethnic groups: Pashtoons,
Tajiks, Hazaras, and Uzbeks. Numerous other minor ethnic groups (Nuristanis, Baluchis,
Turkmens, etc.) also call Afghanistan their home. While the majority of Afghans (99%) belong to
the Islamic faith, there are also small pockets of Sikhs, Hindus and even some Jews. The official
languages of the country are Pashto and Dari (Afghan Persian aka Farsi). The capital of
Afghanistan is Kabul, which throughout history, was admired by many great figures, such as the
great Central Asian conqueror, Zahirudeen Babur. Unfortunately, due to many years of war, this
great city has been shattered and nearly destroyed.


Afghanistan is divided into 34 provinces.
Below is a list of all the provinces and their capitals.
• Badakhshan -- (Faizabad)
• Badghis -- (Qaleh-ye Now)
• Baghlan -- (Pol-e Khomri)
• Balkh -- (Mazar-e-Shariff)
• Bamian -- (Bamian)
• Daikondi -- (Nili)
• Farah -- (Farah)
• Faryab - (Maymana)
• Ghazni - (Ghazni)
• Ghowr -- (Chaghcharan)
• Helmand -- (Lashkar Gah)
• Herat -- (Herat)
• Jowzjan -- (Sheberghan)
• Kabul -- (Kabul)
• Kandahar -(Kandahar)
• Kapisa -- (Mahmud-e-Raqi)
• Khost (Khost) • Konar -- (Asadabad)
• Kunduz -- (Kunduz)
• Laghman -- (Mehtar Lam)
• Lowgar -- (Pol-e Alam)
• Nangarhar -- (Jalalabad)
• Nimruz -- (Zaranj)
• Nuristan -- (Nuristan)
• Panjshir -- (Bazarak)
• Paktia -- (Gardez)
• Paktika -- (Sharan)
• Parwan -- (Charikar)
• Samangan -- (Aybak)
• Sar-i Pol -- (Sar-i Pol)
• Takhar -- (Taloqan)
• Uruzgan -- (Tarin Kowt)
• Wardak -- (Meydan Shahr)
• Zabol -- (Qalat)

Land and Resources

Afghanistan is known for its mountainous terrain. The huge Hindu Kush mountains form a barrier
between the Northern provinces and the rest of the country. This mountain range has also divided
Afghanistan into three very different geographic regions known as; The Central Highlands, The
Northern Plains, and the Southwestern Plateau. The altitude, climate, and soil conditions in
Afghanistan vary greatly on where in the country you are.


The central highlands have an area of about 160,000 square miles. This region of Afghanistan has
deep, narrow valleys, as well as high mountains which have proven to be historically important to
the defense of the country. One of the most famous routs to the Indian subcontinent, The Khyber
Pass, is located in the mountain ranges of the central highlands. The climate in this part of
Afghanistan is usually dry, with temperatures in the summer averaging around 80 degrees
Fahrenheit, while the winters are very cold. The soil in this region ranges from desert-steppe, to
meadow-steppe types.


This region of Afghanistan is made up of high plateaus and sandy deserts. The soil here is very
infertile, except along the rivers in the southwest. This desolate region covers about 50,000 square
miles, and is crossed by several large rivers including the Helmand. The average altitude of this
area is about 3,000 feet. Kandahar, which lies at an elevation of about 3,500 feet, enjoys a dry, yet
mild climate. Sand storms are not unusual in the deserts and arid plains of this region.


This region of Afghanistan covers about 40,000 square miles of extremely fertile foothills and
plains. The Amu river (formerly known as the Oxus) runs through the edge of the foothills. The
average elevation is about 2,000 feet. A tremendous amount of the country's agriculture thrives
here. This region also possesses a vast amount of mineral deposits and natural gas.


The following is just a brief list of the resources that can be found in Afghanistan.
Coal Deposits They have been widely exploited
Copper Mined in small amounts
Gold Mined in small amounts
Silver Mined in small amounts
Lapis Mined in small amounts
Salt Mined in small amounts
Natural Gas Still somewhat unexploited
Iron Ore Still somewhat unexploited
Sulfur Still somewhat unexploited
Chrome Still somewhat unexploited
Zinc Still somewhat unexploited
Uranium Still somewhat unexploited
Rubies Still somewhat unexploited
Oil Still somewhat unexploited

Pashto and Dari (Afghan Persian/Farsi) are the official languages of Afghanistan. Pashto was
declared the National Language of the country during the beginning of Zahir Shah's reign;
however, Dari has always been used for business and government transactions. Both belong to
the Indo-European group of languages. According to recent US government estimates,
approximately 35 percent of the Afghan population speaks Pashto, and about 50 percent speaks
Dari. Turkic languages (Uzbek and Turkmen) are spoken by about 11 percent of the population.
There are also numerous other languages spoken in the country (Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani, etc.),
and bilingualism is very common.
Both Pashto and Dari are written primarily with the Arabic alphabet, however, there are some
modifications. Pashto literature saw a massive rise in development in the 17th century, mostly due
to poets like Khushal Khan Khattak, who is known today as the national poet of Afghanistan.
Other noteworthy Pashto poets in history were Rahman Baba, and the founder of the modern
Afghan nation, Ahmad Shah Abdali.
Dari also has an extensive literature, actually, some of the world’s greatest poems have been
written in Dari. A Dari poem by Jalaluddin Rumi has been translated from its original Dari versions
to numerous other languages, and is widely read even in the west. Many powerful kingdoms of the
past such as those of the Moghuls in India, primarily used Dari in their royal courts.

Chronological History of Afghanistan:
1978 TO 2005/6:
Bloody Communist coup: Daoud is killed, Taraki is named President, and Karmal becomes his
deputy Prime Minister. Tensions rise.
• Mass arrests, tortures, and arrests take place.
• Afghan flag is changed.
• Taraki signs treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union.
• June--Afghan guerrilla (Mujahideen) movement is born.
• Mass killings
• US ambassador killed
• Taraki is killed and Hafizullah Amin takes the Presidency.
• Amin is executed, and he is replaced with Babrak Karmal.
• Soviet Union (Russia) invades in December.
• Dr. Najibullah is brought back from USSR to run the secret police.

• UN sends investigators to Afghanistan to examine reported human rights violations.
• Babrak Karmal is replaced by Dr. Najibullah.
• Najibullah proposes ceasefire, but the Mujahedeen refuse to deal with a "puppet
• Mujahedeen make great gains, defeat of Soviets eminent.
• Peace accords signed in Geneva.
• Soviet Union defeated by Afghanistan, total withdrawal by the Soviets occurred on Feb. 15,
• Experts agree that at least 40,000-50,000 Soviets lost their lives in action, besides the
wounded, suicides, and murders.
• Mujahedeen continue to fight against Najibullah's regime.
• May--Afghan guerrillas elect Sibhhatullah Mojadidi as head of their government-in-exile.
• April 15--The Mujahedeen take Kabul and liberate Afghanistan, Najibullah is protected by UN.
• The Mujahedeen form Islamic State--Islamic Jihad Council--elections.
• Iranian and Pakistani interference increases--more fighting--
• Professor Burhannudin Rabbani is elected President.
• The Taliban militia is born, and advance rapidly against the Rabbani government.
• Dostum and Hekmatyar continued to clash against Rabbani's government, and as a result
Kabul is reduced to rubble.
• Massive gains by the Taliban.
• Increased Pakistani and Iranian interference.
• June--Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, head of Hezbi-Islami, having been eliminated as a military
power, signs a peace pact with Rabbani, and returns to Kabul to rule as prime minister.
• September 27--Taliban militia force President Rabbani and his government out of Kabul. After
the capture of Kabul, the Taliban execute Najibullah.
• Alliance between Government, Hezbi Wahdat, and Dostum
• Oppression of women by the Taliban--women must be fully veiled, no longer allowed to work,
go out alone or even wear white socks. Men are forced to grow beards. Buzkashi, the Afghan
national sport is outlawed.
• Tensions rise as Afghan government accused Pakistan of aiding the Taliban.
• Massive human rights violations by the Taliban.
• Mass graves of Taliban soldiers containing between 1,500 and 2,000 bodies are found. The
men were believed to have been captured in May by General Abdul Malik during the Taliban's brief
takeover of Mazar-i-Sharif.
• February--Earthquake strikes in northeastern Afghanistan, killing over 4,000 people,
destroying villages and leaving thousands of people homeless.
• August--Taliban finally capture Mazar-i-Sharif, and massacre thousands of innocent civilians
afterwards, mostly Hazaras.
• August 20th--United States launches cruise missiles hitting Afghanistan's Khost region. US
states its intent was to destroy so called terrorist bases/training facilities used by Osama bin
Laden and his followers. Some Afghan civilians are also killed.
• September--Tensions rise between Iran and the Taliban. Iranians are angry about the killing
of their diplomats and a journalist by the Taliban when they captured Mazar-i-Sharif. Soon they
deploy 70,000 troops to carry out military exercises near the Afghan border. In the end, no fighting
occurs between the Taliban and the Iranian army.
• February--Earthquake hits eastern Afghanistan, affecting over 30,000 people, and killing at
least 60 to 70 people.
• September--The ex-king of Afghanistan, Mohammad Zahir Shah, calls for a grand assembly,
or Loya Jirga to discuss ways of bringing peace to the country. The United Front soon welcomes
the idea, but the Taliban ridicule Mohammad Zahir Shah's attempts at establishing peace.
• October-- UN Security Council Resolution 1267 is adopted; sanctions against the Taliban on
grounds that they offered sanctuary to Osama bin Laden.
• May--Taliban torture and kill civilians in the Robatak Pass
(on the border between Baghlan and Samangan provinces).
• September--Taloqan finally falls to the Taliban.
• December-- UN Security Council Resolution 1333 is adopted; additional sanctions against
the Taliban for their continuing support of terrorism and cultivation of narcotics, etc.
• January--Taliban torture and kill numerous civilians (Hazaras) in Yakaolang.
• March--Despite pleas and requests from various international diplomats, Islamic scholars, the
Taliban destroy ancient historical statues in the Kabul Museum, historical sites in Ghazni, and
blow up the giant Bamiyan Buddhas from the 5th century. World expresses outrage and disgust
against the Taliban action.
• April--Ahmad Shah Masood visits Europe to gather support against the Taliban.
• April--UN accuses Pakistan of not allowing adequate supply of food and medicines to
displaced Afghans, at the Jalozai camp, near Peshawar.
• April-- Mullah Rabbani, the Taliban's second-in-command dies of liver cancer.
• May-- Taliban order religious minorities to wear tags identifying themselves as non-Muslims.
• September 9-- Ahmad Shah Masood is killed by assassins posing as journalists. Two days
later (September 11th), suicide attacks on the U.S. kill more than 3,000 people and destroy the two
towers of the World Trade Center and part of the Pentagon.
• October-- Abdul Haq is killed by the Taliban. The United States and UK working with the
forces of the United Front (UNIFSA) launch air strikes against the Taliban. (The Americans hold
Osama bin Laden directly responsible for the attacks on the World Trade Center, and the Taliban
were targeted for protecting him.)
• November: Taliban lose control of Mazar-i Sharif.
• December 5-- Bonn Agreement. Afghan political groups come together in Bonn, Germany
and form an interim government. Hamid Karzai is chosen as Chairman.
• April-- Former King Mohammad Zahir returns to Afghanistan (April) -- does not claim throne.
• War continues against Al Qaeda and the Taliban.
• June-- Loya Jirga elects Hamid Karzai as President of a Transitional Government. Karzai
picks members of his administration to serve until elections are held in 2004
• July-- Haji Abdul Qadir (brother of Abdul Haq) is killed. US air raid in Uruzgan province kills
approximately 48 civilians, many of them members of a wedding party
• War against Al Qaeda and the Taliban continue -- further weakened.
• August - NATO takes control of security in Kabul.
• January-- Afghanistan adopts a new constitution. The country is now a republic with 3
branches of government (Executive, Legislative, and Judiciary).
• 2004 October/November - Presidential elections are finally held after being delayed twice.
Hamid Karzai is declared the winner, with 55.4% of the votes. He is sworn in December. Karzai's
strongest challenger, Yunis Qanuni, came in second with 16.3% of the votes. The elections were
not without controversy; allegations of fraud and ballot stuffing were brought up by many of the
presidential candidates including Yunis Qanuni. Many felt that Hamid Karzai had an unfair
advantage over the other candidates as he had access to financial and logistical resources that
many of the other candidates did not have. A panel of international experts was setup to
investigate the matter. The panel did find evidence of voting irregularities; however, they said that
it was not enough to affect the outcome of the elections.

• Harsh winter leaves hundreds of people dead.
• Major advances in the disarmament process announced.
• March-- Dostum appointed as the Chief of Staff to the Commander of the Armed Forces.
Yunis Qanuni announces new political alliance (March 31st).
• April-- Karzai welcomes the formation of Qanuni's political alliance.
2006 and thereafter:
Violence in Afghanistan has soared over two years since 2006, as al Qaeda and Taliban fighters
have regrouped in the remote region between Afghanistan and Pakistan.
While the Bush administration has said it would send more troops, some critics say the plan is
inadequate and any strategy must also focus on Pakistan's side of the border, where U.S. officials
say Osama bin Laden is likely hiding

The United States has stepped up attacks against militant targets inside Pakistan this year with a
series of missile strikes from unmanned drones and a raid by helicopter-borne U.S. commandos in
recent weeks.
The attacks have sparked an outcry from Pakistani leaders and may have complicated the
challenges facing newly elected Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari.
U.S. commanders in Afghanistan have requested three more combat brigades, or about 10,000
more soldiers, to help cope with insurgent activity. Some 33,000 U.S. troops are already there
including 14,000 who are part of a 53,000-strong NATO military command.
Meanwhile, member countries of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) - Armenia,
Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan - agreed to deploy troops and missile
defense shield in
Central Asia to 'control the situation over tensions in Afghanistan.'

"Collective forces of quick deployment consisting of 10 battalions will form the backbone of the
contingent," CSTO Secretary General Nikolay Bordyuzha said.

Top Pentagon officials gave Congress pessimistic assessments of the war in Afghanistan, with
the nation's highest-ranking military officer warning that the U.S. is "running out of time" to
stabilize the country.

Defense Secretary Robert Gates and Adm. Mike Mullen, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff,
testified one day after President George W. Bush announced a plan to gradually withdraw some
8,000 U.S. troops from Iraq while sending an additional 4,500 troops to Afghanistan. The Pentagon
believes the Iraq war has begun winding down while the Afghanistan conflict is intensifying.

Analysis and In-depth look:

Afghanistan is a strategically located landmass in Central Asia. It is rich of mineral resources and
the West has to ensure the flow of energy resources securely over the coming years and decades
through and from Afghanistan. Therefore it is imperatively important that US and the NATO
coalition succeed and preserve the territorial integrity of Afghanistan and rid the country from
Islamic fundamentalism and the Taliban in general.
Seven years ago, on September 11, 2001, the world woke up to a tragic day that has been
recorded in recent history as a consequence of neglecting failing or failed states during the 1990s.
The loss of more than 3,000 American lives was not just an isolated event that we sadly witnessed
on the morning of 9/11 but the culmination of many such tragic events which had been unfolding
before our watching eyes thousands of miles away from American shores in Afghanistan.
It is now an established fact by all accounts that had the United States and its allies helped rebuild
Afghanistan after the withdrawal of the Soviet forces from the country in 1989 and the ensuing fall
of the Afghan regime in 1992, the country would not have become a no man's land -- a hotbed for
global extremism and terrorism -- in the following years. However, soon after Afghans effectively
delivered the last knock-out blow to the falling "Evil Empire," The Soviet Union, the United States
and its Cold War allies including members of the NATO alliance, achieved their strategic objective
in Afghanistan and quit the country, leaving its impoverished people to pick up the pieces on their
The post-Cold War vulnerability of the Afghan people and their country became a gap quickly filled
by the same extremists who had been recruited and supplied by the West to bleed and defeat the
Soviets in Afghanistan. Regional players such as Pakistan's army created the Taliban movement
to advance its strategic interests in Afghanistan, while the Taliban pursued their medieval
extremist agenda to punish an already suffering nation in the name of God. At the same time, al-
Qaida took advantage of stateless Afghanistan where it established its global terrorist operations
to hit hard at American targets worldwide.
Therefore, what changed the world's static attitude towards Afghanistan was indeed the tragedy
of the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the United States. The tragedy reminded the newly elected Bush
administration and America's allies of the job their previous governments had left half done in
Afghanistan a decade earlier, which they now had to complete together to ensure global peace
and security.
Afghanistan is a state, where there are too many inter-connected and overlapping problems
competing for urgent resolution, it is important to narrow down our priorities and focus on the
ones with the potential of helping resolve the rest overtime. This means a departure from ad hoc
approaches to nation-building in Afghanistan where the precious assistance of tax payers in
donor countries has so far been wasted on quick fixes, which have made no real difference in the
lives of the Afghan people over the past seven years.
Domestically, it is critically important to prioritize the strengthening of the Afghan nascent state
institutions so they will soon gain the capacity to govern effectively, address the corruption
problem, and adopt and implement policies that promote long-term economic growth. Without
security and good governance, Afghanistan will be unable to attract foreign capital intensive
investment in the natural resource and infrastructure sectors, which we know can help provide off-
farm employment for poppy farmers and jobs for youth and the returning refugees. And we know
from the experience of many developing countries (from the "Rise of the Rest": China, India,
Brazil, Turkey, South Korea, Malaysia and others) that only sustainable economic growth will help
reduce poverty in Afghanistan, not any unlimited amount of relief hand-outs.
Regionally, the United States and NATO have now realized that the Taliban cannot be defeated in
Afghanistan without dismantling their command and control infrastructure in Pakistan's Federally
Administered Tribal Areas, from where they daily launch terrorist attacks inside Afghanistan,
mostly killing innocent civilians. And unless external institutional support for the Taliban
insurgency ends, military and civilian casualties will continue rising in Afghanistan, gradually
giving the terrorists an upper hand. Therefore, Pakistan's military and intelligence establishment
must be bilaterally and multilaterally persuaded to cooperate sincerely in the war against
terrorism, while the country's civilian government must be strengthened to ensure stability in
Pakistan and the rest of the region on the long run.
At the same time, NATO needs to bolster its military strength in the fight against cross-border
terrorism in Afghanistan. The commanders on the ground are asking for three additional well-
equipped brigades (about 10,000) with a flexible mandate to secure Afghanistan. The U.S. recently
announced deployment of some 4,500 additional troops to Afghanistan by early next year, which
should be complemented with more forces from other NATO member states to bolster military
efforts to contain and defeat the Taliban.
Ultimately, however, the key to securing Afghanistan will rest in the build-up of a professional
Afghan army and police. The Afghan government plans to expand the size of the Afghan National
Army to 134,000 soldiers within the next five years, as well as jump-starting the reform and
building of the Afghan National Police to meet Afghanistan's security and defense needs. For
Afghanistan to realize these objectives, however, the international community must firmly commit
to providing the country with long-term military and law enforcement equipment and training
resources. Doing so will dramatically cut down on the current financial and human cost of
international military presence in Afghanistan, while enabling Afghans to defend their country
more effectively now and in the future.
Attached is a recent travel warning from the United States Department of State:
This Travel Warning provides updated information on the security situation in Afghanistan. The
security threat to all American citizens in Afghanistan remains critical. This Travel Warning
supersedes the Travel Warning for Afghanistan issued February 6, 2008.
The Department of State continues to strongly warn U.S. citizens against travel to Afghanistan.
No part of Afghanistan should be considered immune from violence, and the potential exists
throughout the country for hostile acts, either targeted or random, against American and other
Western nationals at any time. Remnants of the former Taliban regime and the terrorist al-Qa’ida
network, and other groups hostile to NATO-led military operations remain active. There is an on-
going threat to kidnap and assassinate U.S. citizens and Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)
workers throughout the country. Afghan authorities have a limited ability to maintain order and
ensure the security of citizens and visitors. Travel in all areas of Afghanistan is unsafe due to
military operations, landmines, banditry, armed rivalry among political and tribal groups, and the
possibility of terrorist attacks, including attacks using vehicular or other improvised explosive
devices (IEDs). The security environment remains volatile and unpredictable.
Kabul, in particular has seen a rise in militant attacks, including rocket attacks, vehicle borne IEDs,
and suicide bombings. The number of attacks in the south and southwestern areas of the country
continues to be high as a result of insurgent and drug-related activity, but no part of the country is
immune from attacks. Over 100 attacks were reported in Kabul over the past year, although many
additional attacks were thwarted by Afghan and coalition forces. An additional 4,400 attacks
occurred nationwide during the same timeframe.
Incidents have occurred with some frequency on the Kabul-Jalalabad Road (commonly called
Jalalabad Road). The road’s use is highly restricted for Embassy employees and, if the security
situation warrants, sometimes is curtailed completely.
Foreigners throughout the country continue to be targeted for violent attacks and kidnappings,
whether motivated by terrorism or criminal activity. In January, gunmen attacked the Serena Hotel
and killed eight people, including an American contractor and a Norwegian journalist. In April, an
assassination attempt against Afghan President Karzai showed the continued desire of the
insurgency to destabilize the Afghan government. The July 2008 bombing of the Indian Embassy
in downtown Kabul, near many western embassies and Afghan Government institutions,
demonstrated the ability of the insurgents to undertake assaults within Kabul itself. Rocket fire
and rocket propelled grenade (RPG) attacks have occurred with increasing frequency. In August,
three female western non-governmental organization (NGO) employees, along with their male
Afghan driver, were gunned down as they traveled south of Kabul. An American NGO worker and
her driver were kidnapped in Kandahar in January. Other Americans were kidnapped in
Afghanistan in February and August 2008.
Riots and incidents of civil disturbance can and do occur, often without warning. American
citizens should avoid rallies and demonstrations; even demonstrations intended to be peaceful
can turn confrontational and escalate into violence.
Carjackings, robberies, and violent crime remain a problem. American citizens involved in
property disputes -- a common legal problem -- have reported that their adversaries in the disputes
have threatened their lives. Americans who find themselves in such situations cannot assume
that either local law enforcement or the U.S. Embassy will be able to assist them.
From time to time depending on current security conditions, the U.S. Embassy places areas
frequented by foreigners off limits to its personnel. Potential target areas include key national or
international government establishments, international organizations and other locations with
expatriate personnel, and public areas popular with the expatriate community. Private U.S.
citizens are strongly urged to heed these restrictions as well and may obtain the latest information
by consulting the embassy website below.
The United States Embassy’s ability to provide emergency consular services to U.S. citizens in
Afghanistan is limited, particularly for those persons outside the capital. U.S. citizens who choose
to visit or remain in Afghanistan despite this Travel Warning are encouraged to register with the U.
S. Embassy through the State Department's travel registration website, https://travelregistration., and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Afghanistan. Americans
without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy. Registering makes it easier
for the Embassy to contact Americans in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at
Great Masood Road between Radio Afghanistan and the Ministry of Public Health (the road is also
known as Bebe Mahro (Airport Road), Kabul. The phone number is +93-70-108-001 or +93-70-108-
002; the Consular Section can be reached for after-hours emergencies at +93-70-201-908. The
Embassy website is
Updated information on travel and security in Afghanistan may be obtained from the Department
of State by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the United States and Canada or, for callers outside
the United States and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444. For further information, please
consult the Country Specific Information for Afghanistan and the current Worldwide Caution,
which are available on the Bureau of Consular Affairs Internet website at

Compiled by:
Kerop B Gourdikian C.I.P
Chuck McCorvey, Sr.
The GIA Group
United States.

Telecommunications Fraud Control Association --- 1990 Washington, D.C.

Armed Forces Communications & Electronics Association --- 1986, 1987 Washington, D.C.

ENIGMA Variations (London, UK) --- 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989 Cryptographic meetings

Chung Shang Institute of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan --- 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991,
Republic of China Naval Forces, Taipei, Taiwan --- 1988, 1989

Republic of China Combined Forces, Taipei, Taiwan --- 1990

Republic of China National Security Administration, Taipei, Taiwan --- 1991, 1992

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Military Intelligence Center --- 1988, 1989, 1990

Kingdom Of Kuwait Signal Corps --- 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990 Kuwait City, Kuwait

United Arab Republic of Egypt Military Intelligence --- 1989 Cairo, Egypt

United Arab Emirates, Dubai Military Intelligence --- 1989, 1990 Dubai and Abu Dhabi, UAE

Federal Republic of Germany, Bonn --- 1989 Bonn, Germany

Designed and developed the world's first digitally encrypted telephone operating at 9.6 Kbps (V.32) over dial-up telephone lines, with a
recovered voice quality equal to that of a high quality non-encrypted telephone.

Designed and developed the world's first digitally encrypted cellular telephone capable of changing cell sites while in the secure
(encrypted) mode.

Designed portable versions of the encrypted phones described above for use world-wide over the PSTN.

Designed and developed a strategic level digital encryptor for use with any Group II or Group III fax machines. These encryptors do not
require the fax machine to have a serial data port (RS-232).

Developed high-speed digital data encryptors.

Developed unique electronic intelligence gathering systems.

Designed and developed unique fax intercept systems.

Designed and developed a unique tracking system for Lap Top Computers.

Lectured around the world on secure communications systems and electronic intelligence gathering systems.

Has extensive knowledge of the various types and forms of encryption methods and systems employed throughout the world.

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